MitraClip and Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in a Patient With Recurrent Heart Failure
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- aortic stenosis
- mitral regurgitation
- stress echocardiography
- transcatheter aortic valve implantation
- transcatheter aortic valve replacement
- transcatheter mitral valve repair
An 85-year-old man presented to the emergency department with a 3-week history of progressive dyspnea, orthopnea, and mild ankle edema without chest discomfort. His past medical history was significant for coronary artery disease with a non–ST-segment–elevation myocardial infarction 8 years prior with percutaneous coronary intervention to the distal right coronary artery, with mild residual nonobstructive disease in the left anterior descending artery and circumflex artery. Cardiovascular risk factors included hypertension, dyslipidemia, and chronic kidney disease stage 3. His remaining medical history was significant for cecal adenocarcinoma with a right hemicolectomy 20 years prior, and pulmonary sarcoidoisis that was quiescent without any history of steroid use or immunosuppression. The most recent pulmonary function tests revealed normal spirometry and diffusion capacity. He was a nonsmoker, and before the onset of symptoms he was functionally independent only using a cane for mobility.
Initial vital signs revealed a regular heart rate of 81 bpm, and blood pressure of 121/78 mm Hg. He was afebrile, and his oxygen saturation was 95% on 2-L nasal prongs. Jugular venous pressure was elevated at 7 cm above the sternal angle with a normal waveform; the hepatojugular reflex was positive. The carotid pulse was of decreased volume but normal contour, without audible bruits. Auscultation revealed a normal S1 and S2, a holosystolic murmur at the apex, and a grade 2 midpeaking systolic ejection murmur at the base, with radiation to the carotids. Respiratory examination revealed clear and equal breath sounds bilaterally with the presence of bibasilar crackles at the lung bases. Peripheral pulses were present, with bilateral pitting edema at the ankles. Abdominal examination was unremarkable. Initial investigations revealed hemoglobin of 103 g/dL, and electrolytes within the normal range with a creatinine of 121 mmol/L (estimated glomerular filtration rate 50 mL/min). Troponin I (high sensitivity) was elevated with peak of …