Early Endocarditis and Delayed Left Ventricular Pseudoaneurysm Complicating a Transapical Transcatheter Mitral Valve-in-Valve Implantation
Percutaneous Closure Under Local Anesthesia and Echocardiographic Guidance
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A 72-year-old man was referred because of suspected infective endocarditis. Fifteen years earlier, he had undergone mitral valve replacement with a 33-mm Hancock valve for severe mitral regurgitation. Three months ago, he presented with a first episode of congestive heart failure caused by severe mitral regurgitation reflecting degeneration of the bioprosthetic valve without sign of endocarditis. Because of a high surgical risk based on an estimated Euroscore I of 42.96% and The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) score of 29% (main comorbidity is an advanced Parkinson disease), valve-in-valve implantation was planned. A 29-mm Edwards Sapien 3 (S3) balloon-expandable valve was successfully implanted through transapical puncture of the left ventricle (LV) after direct surgical exposure by mini thoracotomy. Patient was discharged 10 days after the procedure without complications.
On his admission, the patient was febrile and examination revealed a purulent discharge at the site of thoracotomy. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and transesophageal echocardiography showed a 15-mm mobile vegetation on the leaflet of the S3 (Movie I in the Data Supplement) and a pseudoaneurysm at the apex of the left ventricle (LVPA) flowing by a large apical defect (Figure 1; Movie II in the Data Supplement). Computed tomographic (CT) scanning confirmed the LVPA free from any thrombus and identified the surgical suture tip in its deep (Figures 1 and 2; Movie III in the Data Supplement). 18F positron-emission tomography demonstrated an uptake on the S3 and LVPA (Figure 2). Blood cultures were positive for Staphylococcus aureus. Antibiotherapy with co-trimoxazole for 6 weeks and clindamycin for 1 week was started, and a quick clinical and biological …