Table 1.

Baseline Characteristics and In-Hospital Outcomes of TAVR Patients Discharged Alive After Index Hospitalization

Overall30-d ReadmissionP Value
No (n=10 033)Yes (n=2188)
Age, y81.5±8.481.3±8.482.0±8.30.001
 <8555.4%56.1%51.8%<0.001
 ≥8544.6%43.9%48.2%
Women, %49.148.950.00.371
Primary expected payer<0.001
 Medicare91.6%91.2%93.5%
 Medicaid0.7%0.7%0.8%
 Private5.5%5.8%4.4%
 Uninsured0.7%0.7%0.7%
 Other1.5%1.7%0.6%
Median household income0.818
 0–25th percentile20.4%20.5%19.8%
 26th–50th percentile24.5%24.5%24.3%
 51st–75th percentile26.5%26.4%27.0%
 76th–100th percentile28.6%28.6%28.9%
Comorbidities
 Smoking27.5%27.7%26.2%0.133
 Dyslipidemia63.3%64.2%59.2%<0.001
 Hypertension79.7%80.4%76.4%<0.001
 Diabetes mellitus33.9%33.5%35.9%0.027
 Obesity14.9%14.6%15.9%0.146
 Heart failure72.6%72.5%73.3%0.413
 Known CAD68.6%68.7%68.1%0.558
 Previous MI12.8%13.0%11.9%0.171
 Previous PCI20.1%19.6%22.7%0.001
 Previous CABG22.7%23.4%19.5%<0.001
 Carotid artery disease7.2%7.4%6.0%0.021
 Previous TIA/stroke12.9%13.0%12.5%0.580
 Atrial fibrillation45.9%44.8%50.7%<0.001
 Previous PPM10.1%10.2%9.9%0.737
 Previous ICD3.4%3.5%3.2%0.516
 Peripheral vascular disease30.8%30.6%31.6%0.355
 Anemia26.0%25.5%28.7%0.002
 Chronic kidney disease35.3%33.7%42.7%<0.001
 Chronic lung disease34.5%33.6%39.0%<0.001
 Liver disease2.2%2.1%2.6%0.166
 Coagulopathy24.4%24.2%25.5%0.184
 Dementia7.8%7.7%8.5%0.230
 Depression7.5%7.7%6.8%0.165
 Hypothyroidism19.9%19.7%21.0%0.149
 Fluid and electrolyte disorders29.7%28.5%35.4%<0.001
 Other neurological disorders6.8%6.6%7.6%0.105
 Pulmonary circulation disorders0.9%0.9%1.2%0.129
 Cancer3.6%3.7%3.0%0.126
 No. of Elixhauser comorbidities4.4±1.94.3±1.94.7±2.0<0.001
  ≤454.6%56.3%46.7%<0.001
  >445.4%43.7%53.3%
Hospital characteristics
 Bed size0.039
  Small3.0%2.8%3.7%
  Medium12.6%12.8%11.7%
  Large84.4%84.4%84.5%
 Location0.040
  Rural0.8%0.7%1.1%
  Urban99.2%99.3%98.9%
 Teaching status0.462
  Nonteaching11.3%11.4%10.8%
  Teaching88.7%88.6%89.2%
In-hospital procedures
 TAVR access<0.001
  Endovascular68.9%70.4%62.4%
  Transapical31.1%29.6%37.6%
 Coronary angiography25.5%25.4%25.8%0.714
 PCI3.5%3.4%4.0%0.125
 Mechanical circulatory support1.9%1.8%2.4%0.076
In-hospital outcomes
 Surgical AVR0.3%0.2%0.3%0.557
 Complete heart block7.8%7.8%8.1%0.558
 PPM placement9.2%8.8%11.3%<0.001
 TIA/stroke2.6%2.6%2.7%0.821
 AMI2.8%2.9%2.5%0.323
 Cardiogenic shock2.1%2.2%2.0%0.658
 Cardiac arrest2.8%2.5%4.3%<0.001
 AKI18.2%16.4%26.5%<0.001
 Major bleeding17.1%16.6%19.5%0.001
 Vascular complications5.0%4.8%5.7%0.109
 LOS, d9.0±8.68.5±8.011.3±10.9<0.001
  ≤539.2%41.9%27.0%<0.001
  >560.8%58.1%73.0%
 Discharge disposition<0.001
  Home (self-care)29.3%30.9%22.1%
  Short-term hospital1.2%1.2%1.1%
  Skilled nursing facility32.0%30.1%40.7%
  Home healthcare37.5%37.8%36.2%
 Total hospital cost, US$59 877±31 66858 577±30 66965 840±35 298<0.001
  • AMI indicates acute myocardial infarction; AKI, acute kidney injury; AVR, aortic valve replacement; CABG, coronary artery bypass grafting; CAD, coronary artery disease; ICD, implantable cardioverter defibrillator; LOS, length of stay; MI, myocardial infarction; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention; PPM, permanent pacemaker; TAVR, transcatheter aortic valve replacement; TIA, transient ischemic attack; and US$, United States dollar.