Table 1.

Patient and Procedural Variables for Femoral-Only Procedures in 2007 (n=35 929), 2010 (n=35 944), and 2013 (n=23 579)

Center FP in 2013
<33.3%, n=53 Centers33.3%–66.7%, n=23 Centers>66.7%, n=16 CentersP Value for Groups Modifying Time-Trends
200720102013200720102013200720102013
Procedures, n (% of yearly total)21 693 (60.4)19 902 (55.4)10 629 (45.1)8726 (24.3)10 957 (30.5)7366 (31.2)5510 (15.3)5085 (14.1)5584 (23.7)
Continuous; mean (SD)
 Age, y64.2 (11.3)65.6 (11.9)66.5 (12.2)63.9 (11.5)64.8 (12.1)65.4 (12.2)65.1 (11.3)65.8 (11.6)66.9 (12.1)0.002
Categorical; n (% of nonmissing within-strata total)
 Sex0.241
  Male15 612 (71.97)14 221 (71.46)7254 (68.25)6409 (73.45)8088 (73.82)5268 (71.52)4193 (76.10)3798 (74.69)4082 (73.10)
  Female6081 (28.03)5681 (28.54)3375 (31.75)2317 (26.55)2869 (26.18)2098 (28.48)1317 (23.90)1287 (25.31)1502 (26.90)
 Indication-elective10 345 (47.69)8096 (40.68)3996 (37.60)3789 (43.42)4145 (37.83)2571 (34.90)2799 (50.80)2388 (46.96)2417 (43.28)<0.001
  UA/NSTEMI8389 (38.67)6851 (34.42)3715 (34.95)3848 (44.10)3768 (34.39)2506 (34.02)1895 (34.39)1839 (36.17)2153 (38.56)
  STEMI2959 (13.64)4955 (24.90)2918 (27.45)1089 (12.48)3044 (27.78)2289 (31.08)816 (14.81)858 (16.87)1014 (18.16)
 Shock353 (1.65)656 (3.32)837 (7.92)105 (1.30)224 (2.05)340 (4.64)90 (1.69)113 (2.33)178 (3.27)<0.001
 IABP support430 (2.13)543 (2.80)410 (3.95)135 (2.31)219 (2.45)196 (2.97)87 (1.71)91 (1.86)119 (2.19)0.022
 CP support14 (0.07)29 (0.15)29 (0.28)1 (0.02)15 (0.17)17 (0.26)0 (0.00)16 (0.33)15 (0.28)0.999
 Inotropic support106 (0.53)202 (1.04)267 (2.58)40 (0.68)110 (1.23)123 (1.86)33 (0.65)40 (0.82)43 (0.79)<0.001
 Ventilated155 (0.93)336 (1.98)546 (5.66)46 (0.78)152 (1.68)208 (3.36)45 (1.38)92 (2.53)119 (2.44)<0.001
 LVEF<0.001
  Good (>50%)5838 (68.06)6833 (63.97)3526 (59.68)2747 (69.86)2807 (72.64)1859 (69.06)2538 (83.27)2309 (80.29)2750 (77.90)
  Moderate (30% to 50%)2230 (26.00)3102 (29.04)1689 (28.59)608 (15.46)891 (23.06)641 (23.81)408 (13.39)467 (16.24)652 (18.47)
  Poor (<30%)510 (5.95)746 (6.98)693 (11.73)577 (14.67)166 (4.30)192 (7.13)102 (3.35)100 (3.48)128 (3.63)
 MI history5614 (32.23)5673 (32.59)3654 (35.90)1642 (25.53)2651 (25.56)1909 (28.01)1771 (36.46)1386 (34.05)1404 (29.65)<0.001
 CABG history2980 (19.54)2134 (12.98)1665 (19.10)528 (14.24)1030 (13.09)932 (17.18)310 (12.19)353 (10.74)548 (13.53)<0.001
 Stroke history661 (3.26)957 (5.10)588 (6.04)222 (2.72)298 (2.76)249 (3.45)146 (2.67)157 (3.18)191 (3.56)<0.001
 Valvular heart disease137 (0.67)212 (1.13)223 (2.29)48 (0.59)149 (1.38)124 (1.72)53 (0.97)69 (1.40)129 (2.41)0.014
 Peripheral vascular disease847 (4.17)1190 (6.34)790 (8.11)329 (4.02)483 (4.48)331 (4.59)166 (3.04)141 (2.85)187 (3.49)<0.001
 High cholesterol11 798 (58.12)11 650 (62.05)5598 (57.49)4482 (54.83)5490 (50.90)3779 (52.42)2421 (44.34)2995 (60.60)3235 (60.38)<0.001
 Hypertension10 656 (52.50)10 787 (57.45)6008 (61.70)3987 (48.78)5685 (52.71)4040 (56.04)1981 (36.28)2634 (53.30)3286 (61.33)<0.001
 Diabetes mellitus3637 (17.69)3740 (19.42)2545 (25.87)1354 (17.35)2003 (18.75)1622 (23.04)977 (19.56)1068 (23.15)1173 (22.56)<0.001
 Renal<0.001
  No renal disease19 567 (97.47)18 030 (96.72)9455 (95.44)7371 (97.22)10 438 (97.09)6758 (95.18)4675 (95.82)4679 (97.34)5124 (96.44)
  High creatinine288 (1.43)416 (2.23)250 (2.52)102 (1.35)170 (1.58)186 (2.62)114 (2.34)81 (1.69)108 (2.03)
  Dialysis220 (1.10)196 (1.05)202 (2.04)109 (1.44)143 (1.33)156 (2.20)90 (1.84)47 (0.98)81 (1.52)
 Smoking<0.001
  Nonsmoker6144 (34.04)6381 (35.97)3593 (37.97)1970 (31.22)3280 (35.21)2488 (38.75)1590 (33.17)1416 (31.33)2113 (41.93)
  Ex-smoker7823 (43.35)7218 (40.69)3912 (41.34)2773 (43.95)3638 (39.06)2483 (38.67)2138 (44.60)2098 (46.43)1945 (38.60)
  Current smoker4080 (22.61)4139 (23.33)1958 (20.69)1567 (24.83)2397 (25.73)1450 (22.58)1066 (22.24)1005 (22.24)981 (19.47)
 GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors6850 (32.75)4493 (23.26)1872 (17.99)2361 (31.85)2911 (28.95)1281 (19.23)1294 (24.28)771 (16.05)501 (9.45)<0.001
 Antiplatelets<0.001
  Clopidogrel15 505 (99.72)15 240 (96.31)6902 (81.45)5331 (99.50)7829 (99.13)4187 (80.53)3810 (99.79)4092 (99.34)4117 (86.93)
  Prasugrel0 (0.00)550 (3.48)618 (7.29)0 (0.00)33 (0.42)261 (5.02)0 (0.00)17 (0.41)44 (0.93)
  Ticagrelor0 (0.00)2 (0.01)927 (10.94)0 (0.00)5 (0.06)728 (14.00)0 (0.00)0 (0.00)561 (11.85)
  Ticlopidine44 (0.28)32 (0.20)27 (0.32)27 (0.50)31 (0.39)23 (0.44)8 (0.21)10 (0.24)14 (0.30)
 Warfarin151 (0.74)167 (0.88)117 (1.14)56 (0.82)58 (0.57)57 (0.84)40 (0.74)34 (0.67)85 (1.53)0.010
 Bivalirudin447 (2.20)558 (2.94)616 (6.00)21 (0.31)208 (2.03)230 (3.37)7 (0.13)6 (0.12)228 (4.10)<0.001
 Stents<0.001
  No stents used1700 (8.22)1852 (9.65)1278 (12.41)472 (6.11)675 (6.60)565 (8.14)317 (5.81)334 (7.02)356 (6.72)
  BMS only8031 (38.82)4431 (23.09)1052 (10.22)3062 (39.63)2237 (21.88)616 (8.88)2428 (44.53)1012 (21.27)434 (8.19)
  DES only9526 (46.05)12 319 (64.19)7731 (75.09)3638 (47.08)6926 (67.76)5630 (81.12)2473 (45.36)3283 (69.01)4443 (83.83)
  BMS and DES1431 (6.92)590 (3.07)235 (2.28)555 (7.18)384 (3.76)129 (1.86)234 (4.29)128 (2.69)67 (1.26)
 Multivessel PCI3472 (16.01)2833 (14.23)1652 (15.54)1524 (17.47)1409 (12.86)963 (13.07)687 (12.47)673 (13.24)799 (14.31)<0.001
 Left-main stem PCI694 (3.20)852 (4.28)944 (8.88)246 (2.82)298 (2.72)536 (7.28)116 (2.11)164 (3.23)274 (4.91)<0.001
 30-d mortality401 (1.86)596 (3.01)626 (6.08)140 (1.64)254 (2.35)252 (3.59)72 (1.35)99 (2.02)138 (2.61)<0.001
  • Stratified by FP2013 and calendar year. BMS indicates bare-metal stent; CABG, coronary artery bypass graft; CP, cardiopulmonary; DES, drug-eluting stent; FP, femoral proportion; GP IIb/IIIa, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors; IABP, intra-aortic balloon pump; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; MI, myocardial infarction; NSTEMI, non–ST-segment–elevation myocardial infarction; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention; STEMI, ST-segment–elevation myocardial infarction; and UA, unstable angina.