Table 2.

Outcomes

RADPAD (N=255)NOPAD (N=255)SHAMPAD (N=256)RADPAD vs NOPADRADPAD vs SHAMPADSHAMPAD vs NOPAD
Primary outcome
 Relative exposure (E/DAP)*3.2±3.34.0±4.05.7±9.3P=0.01P<0.001P=0.009
Secondary outcomes
 Primary operator dose (E in µSv)7.0 (3.2–17.2)9.5 (3.4–21.0)10.3 (4.3–27.8)P=0.11P=0.001P=0.09
 Patient exposure (DAP in mGy·cm2)32774 (17 402–64 693)32450 (16 002–55 584)32456 (16 633–58 697)P=0.61P=0.43P=0.90
  • The data of the primary operator dose and the patient exposure were positively skewed, accordingly the operator dose and patient exposure are presented as median (25th–75th percentile). The nonparametric Mann–Whitney U test was used to calculate differences between the 3 arms. However, the primary outcome of relative exposure is a ratio, and as such presented as a mean±SD. DAP indicates dose area product; NOPAD, standard treatment; RADPAD, radiation absorbing shield; and SHAMPAD, sham shield.

  • * ×10–4.