Table 1.

Patient and Procedural Characteristics

RADPAD (N=255)NOPAD (N=255)SHAMPAD (N=256)
Demographics
 Age, y67±1167±1267±12
 Male sex178 (70)165 (65)189 (74)
Medical history
 BMI28±428±528±5
 Previous myocardial infarction74 (29)62 (25)58 (23)
 Previous PCI or bypass surgery99 (39)99 (39)90 (35)
Risk factors
 Diabetes mellitus61 (25)60 (25)65 (26)
 Known hypertension157 (64)137 (56)136 (55)
 Family history of CAD135 (57)127 (55)128 (55)
 Hypercholesterolemia120 (50)105 (45)105 (44)
 Current cigarette smoking45 (18)49 (21)54 (23)
Presentation
 ACS*60 (24)73 (29)71 (28)
 Stable CAD147 (58)143 (56)155 (61)
 Other48 (19)39 (15)30 (12)
Procedural characteristics
 Radial access201 (79)202 (79)203 (79)
 CAG136 (53)116 (46)120 (47)
 IFR/FFR only18 (7)19 (8)24 (9)
 PCI with stenting103 (40)121 (48)117 (46)
 Lesions treated per PCI1.4±0.71.4±0.71.4±0.6
 Locations of treated lesions
 LM or LAD61 (59)59 (49)70 (59)
 CX35 (34)38 (31)26 (22)
 RCA24 (23)47 (39)44 (38)
 PCI of chronic total occlusion7 (3)10 (4)18 (7)
Primary operator
 Staff operators168 (66)175 (69)177 (69)
 Cardiology fellow/trainee87 (34)80 (31)79 (31)
Procedure time, min
 Fluoroscopy time12.4±11.412.9±11.113.3±11.2
 Skin-to-skin time45.0±26.746.7±25.048.9±26.7
  • Data are number (%) or mean±SD. ACS indicates acute coronary syndrome; BMI, body mass index; CAD, coronary artery disease; CAG, coronary angiography; CX, circumflex artery; FFR, fractional flow reserve; IFR, instantaneous wave-free ratio; LAD, left anterior descending; LM, left main; NOPAD, standard treatment; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention; RADPAD, radiation absorbing shield; RCA, right coronary artery; and SHAMPAD, sham shield.

  • * ACS, ST-segment–elevation myocardial infarction/non–ST-segment–elevation myocardial infarction/unstable angina.

  • Heart failure, pretransplantation, prevalve replacement.

  • Without any coronary intervention.